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What do you see as priority actions which we can all rally around in achieving targets 14.7 and target 14.b by 2030 as stipulated in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development?

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Irena Zubcevic's picture

Irena Zubcevic said:

Dear Roshan,

Thank you very much for your interesting comments and for these examples from Mauritius. In a lot of coastal zones, different sectoral activities contributing to the blue economy and related stressors are impacting the health of the marine and coastal ecosystems. These sectors and impacts should not be treated in isolation and diverse area-based measures and management tools can be used, including for example the application of an ecosystem approach, marine spatial planning, integrated coastal zone management and the establishment of marine protected areas, consistent with international law and based on scientific information, including representative networks. The main purpose of these measures is to sustainably manage, protect, conserve and restore coastal and marine areas and resources, while also supporting economically valuable activities and having important social impacts. Restoring and protecting the health of oceans and coasts can contribute to strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of both natural and human systems to climate change and other threats. Many efforts are ongoing to support the management, protection, conservation and restoration of coastal and marine ecosystems, including the development of Member State capacities to integrate climate change adaptation and coastal hazards preparedness into national strategies. The involvement of local communities is hereby crucial. I would also like to encourage you to register any partnerships or initiatives launched after 25 September 2015 on the Conference website under: https://oceanconference.un.org/commitments/register/

Irena Zubcevic's picture

Irena Zubcevic said:

Dear Nicole,

Thank you very much for contributing to this online discussion. It is true that the sustainable development goals of the 2030 Agenda are interlinked and that achieving some of the targets under SDG 14 will depend upon a broad array of actions under other SDGs, including those that relate to food security, economic growth, industrialization and infrastructure and sustainable consumption and production. Those interactions should be kept in mind when discussing the implementation of Goal 14. It is encouraging to see that a new internationally negotiated and agreed instrument dedicated specifically to small-scale fisheries has been endorsed, that new regional initiatives are taking place and that this particular sector is getting more attention, also with regard to its importance for indigenous local communities, especially in developing countries. Thank you also for listing some important actions and partnerships undertaken with regard to small-scale fisheries. One of the important outcomes of the Ocean Conference will be a list of voluntary commitments and I would therefore like to encourage you and other partners of listed partnerships launched after 25 September 2015 to register them on the Conference website under: https://oceanconference.un.org/commitments/register/

Irena Zubcevic's picture

Irena Zubcevic said:

Dear Permana Yudiarso,

Thank you very much for your valuable comments. I could not agree more that the involvement of local communities is of outmost importance. Stakeholders, including local communities, are often not sufficiently involved in the development, designation and management of area-based measures and blue economy development in a transparent, just and equitable manner, although there is a need to take into account traditional and indigenous knowledge. It will be important to apply a human-centred approach in an effort to balance economic development, social needs and environmental protection, while also taking into account cultural aspects. Sustainable management of marine and coastal ecosystems requires the involvement of both public and private stakeholders and the sustained buy-in of coastal communities. Meaningful alternative livelihoods must be made available to local communities, which should be an integral part of national development agendas. Clear legislative and policy frameworks must be in place to foster community organization and to allow for their full participation in the management of marine resources as stewards. It is important to note that areas with strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, and high levels of local engagement in management have been relatively more successful in achieving certain biodiversity outcomes. I would also like to encourage you to register any partnerships or initiatives launched after 25 September 2015 on the Conference website under: https://oceanconference.un.org/commitments/register/

permana yudiarso's picture

permana yudiarso said:

1. making possible and accessible to all Communities Involved in the planning, implementing and controlling the regulations

2. cooperations with local and national stakeholders

3. transparacy and open the decision making process

4. get all government and other actors in to community level, hear, develop and build coastal communities needs  

Nicole Franz's picture

Nicole Franz said:

Dear moderators,

Thank you for this opportunity to share our thoughts on these important targets.

SDG target 14.b - Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets is the only SDG target directly addressing small-scale fisheries. It is estimated that the small-scale fisheries subsector accounts for more than 90% of the full-time or part-time workers directly depended on commercial capture fisheries value chains for their livelihoods. Almost half of these are women and 90-95% of the catch produced by the small-scale landings are destined for local human consumption.

Small-scale fisheries actors therefore have to be key actors in the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. Considering the livelihood function of small-scale fisheries, SDG target 14b is also closely linked to other SDGs, in particular SDG 1 (No poverty), SGDs 2 (End hunger), SDG 12 (Ensure sustainable consumption and production) and SDG 13 (Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts).

Target 14.b is focusing on access to resources and markets for small-scale fisheries, in line with the Rio+20 outcome document para, 175. Secure access requires an enabling environment which recognizes and protects small-scale fisheries rights. Such an enabling environment has three key features:

1. Appropriate legal, regulatory and policy frameworks,

2. Specific initiatives to support small-scale fisheries and

3. Related institutional mechanisms for the participation of small-scale fisheries organizations in relevant processes.

Countries have recognized this and in 2014, after a long participatory consultation process, the members of the FAO Committee on Fisheries endorsed a new internationally negotiated and agreed instrument dedicated specifically to small-scale fisheries that complements the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. These Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines) set out principles and guidance for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries governance and development. The SSF Guidelines include specific chapters on the responsible governance of tenure, and on value chains, post-harvest and trade. The SSF Guidelines are also closely related to the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure for Land, Fisheries and Forestry in the Context of National Food Security.

At the regional level and in particular in the SIDS context, there are related important developments:

•             Pacific: the 9th SPC Heads of Fisheries Meeting endorsed A new song for coastal fisheries – pathways to change: The Noumea strategy in 2015, acknowledging the need to dedicate more attention to this sector.

•             Indian Ocean region: the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) Ministers Council recently adopted a new Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Strategy for the period 2015-2025. Its overarching objective is to allow the fisheries and aquaculture sector in IOC Member States to fully realize its potential contribution to sustainable and equitable growth in the region. The IOC Fisheries and Aquaculture Strategy 2015-2025 is rooted in the African Union Policy Framework and Reform Strategy for African Fisheries and Aquaculture  and recognizes the relevance of the SSF Guidelines for assisting Member States in reaching food security and poverty alleviation objectives. Its first Strategic Axis focuses on the need to establish better fisheries governance frameworks, in particular through setting-up mechanisms to improve participation in decision-making processes, including co-management arrangements.

•             Caribbean: A FAO/CRFM/WECAFC Caribbean Regional Consultation on the Development of International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries held in 2012 confirmed the importance of small-scale fisheries as a contributor to poverty alleviation, food and nutrition security, and economic development also in the Caribbean region.

The SSF Guidelines therefore provide an important internationally agreed tool for all to take action to allow small-scale fisheries to make its full contribution to food security and poverty eradication. Importantly, these guidelines promote a human rights-based approach.

Implementation of the SSF Guidelines calls for collaboration among key actors to secure sustainable small-scale fisheries.

Governments have a key responsibility to support small-scale fisheries at the national and local level, and to incorporate the sector in relevant regulatory frameworks, policies, strategies, etc. – not only for fisheries but for overall socio-economic development. Political engagement at high level together with investments in capacity and participatory decision-making processes will be required in order to realize the new vision for small-scale fisheries.

Fishers and fish workers, through their organizations, are main drivers of change and play a major role in the “bottom-up” processes, ensuring that regulatory frameworks, policies and strategies are actually implemented. 

Other actors, in particular academia and research, but also regional organizations, NGOs and others, should be at the interface of this dual strategy, with a function to connect, to supplement, to document and to strengthen the above-mentioned efforts.

There are already a number of important partnerships and initiatives which have been established around small-scale fisheries. Many of these refer to the SSF Guidelines as the global reference framework which provides a common ground for action. A few examples include:

•             CSOs: Major small-scale fisheries organizations (e.g. WFF and WFFP) and support organizations (ICSF) have joined forces under the IPC Fisheries Working Group . They played a crucial role in the development of the SSF Guidelines and also now in their implementation , organizing national and regional events, developing materials and advocating small-scale fisheries issues in a vast number of foras.  IFAD is an important partner in this, as well as FAO.

•             Academia: The global Too Big To Ignore Research Partnership  is supporting the better understanding of small-scale fisheries and bridging the science-policy gap.

•             UN organizations: FAO has established an Umbrella Programme for the Promotion and Application of the SSF Guidelines to enhancing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to food security and sustainable livelihoods. In this context, FAO is collaborating with other UN organizations, namely IFAD and UNOHCHR, as well as with a large number of partners (governments, regional organizations, civil society, academia, NGOs)

•             Regional organizations: a large number of regional organizations has specifically included small-scale fisheries in their policies, strategies and initiatives (e.g. African Union, SEAFDEC, GFCM, SPC, OSPESCA, CECAF, African Union…). These organizations play an important role as catalysts for change at the national level.

What is missing now is a powerful mechanism to bring all of the existing and potential new efforts in support of small-scale fisheries together in a coherent manner. This would allow to have a global learning process, an exchange of experiences and to develop synergies.

In 2016 the FAO Committee on Fisheries agreed on the need for a global mechanism for facilitating interaction between COFI Members and interested actors to support the implementation of the SSF Guidelines at all levels, and to promote a common vision and implementation approach, which is based on the principles of the SSF Guidelines themselves.

As the SSF Guidelines are a tool for all to improve small-scale fisheries, such a mechanism would support awareness-raising on small-scale fisheries needs and opportunities, promote a  human rights-based approach, facilitate information and experience-sharing as well as resource mobilization. It could also allow to assess progress, including on SDG14b. Importantly, such a mechanism would promote the full and effective participation of small-scale fisheries actors in the SSF Guidelines implementation, in particular small-scale fisheries communities including women, youth and indigenous peoples.

FAO, in close collaboration with the IPC Fisheries Working Group, is in the process of preparing a proposal for such a mechanism and welcomes suggestions and engagement from all interested partners.

Irena Zubcevic's picture

Irena Zubcevic said:

Welcome to the online forum on Increasing economic benefits to SIDS and LDCS and providing access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets (SDG14.7 and 14.b) in advance of The Ocean Conference. I’m very pleased to be moderating this discussion and looking forward to hearing from you. In particular, I’m interested in receiving contributions about priority actions we can all rally around in achieving targets 14.7 and 14.b as stipulated in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. I look forward to a useful discussion.

Roshan T Ramessur's picture

Roshan T Ramessur said:

A holistic and proactive approach towards prevention, capacity building, mitigation and preparedness is used for disaster management and ocean acidification (OA). Sustainable and vulnerability issues in the coastal zone of Mauritius are being addressed and how appropriate management of these resources can help coastal communities prepare for and adapt to a changing climate in line with the green economy. Data from RegCM, a 3D, sigma coordinated regional climate model and its latest version RegCM 4.3 including several features related to climatic interactions for parameters such as temperature and humidity can be compared with the measured data from different meteorological stations in the considered region as obtained from the weatherspark website and strategies developed for climate change adaptation measures, smart cities and renewable energy and sustainability goals in Mauritius  In addtion the OA- Africa Network is contributing for capacity buiding and development of projects under GOA-ON in different institutions in the region.