Ocean Action Hub

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10 tips for happy and eco-friendly holidays

24 Dec 2018 - This holiday season can be different.

24 Dec 2018 - At this time of year we focus on buying gifts for special people in our lives, but we rarely think the consequences of our spending.

Take single-use plastic bags. If we keep using them at the rate we are, there will be more plastics than fish in our oceans by 2050. Clothes are one of the largest wasteful contributions to landfills, and they add microplastics and nanoplastics to our oceans. In the US, people throw away 13 million tons in unwanted gifts every year. About 34 percent of that is clothing.

In 2016 the world generated almost 45 million metric tons of electronic waste, equivalent to almost 4,500 Eiffel Towers

This holiday season can be different. Let the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), inspire us to move from linear to circular consumption, where we consider the entire life cycle of the things we buy, and create new shopping and festive holiday habits.

Our top 10

1. Use reusable bags

2. Use non-disposable bottles for liquids

3. Make sure takeaway food packaging is eco-friendly, and preferably made of compostable materials. For outdoor parties use biodegradable or compostable cups.

4. More than a third of all food is wasted. Learn to shop and store food in ways that ensure it doesn’t end up in landfills, producing methane.

5. Choose clothing made from organic cotton.

6. Create your own fashion trends by buying gently-used items at thrift stores.

6. Buy products made by local artisans. This promotes local economies and saves transport emissions.

7. Properly dispose of waste for recycling. Recycle gift wrap (and try to use recycled materials in the first place), recycle glass, aluminum and plastics.

8. Donate everything you don’t need; many things can be refused and shared.

9. Exchange gifts that aren’t ‘things’, such as an art gallery membership, a massage, or even make your own gifts from local materials.

10. Finally, in the spirit of the season, consider ways in which you might help people who are going through hard times, such as those who live in poverty, those displaced by migration, or who a victims of violence

Let us live our lives guided by the ideals of the 2030 Agenda. This can be a time to raise awareness, to take care of the planet, to help those who are most in need and leave no one behind.

CONTINUE READING: https://medium.com/@UNDP/10-tips-for-happy-and-eco-friendly-holidays-d44...

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The Blue Forest: A Kenyan community fights climate change with mangroves
21 Dec 2018 - Mangroves have a role to play when it comes to climate change.

21 Dec 2018 - Just off the southern coast of Kenya, a forest grows from the ocean. This dense mangrove ecosystem - stretching across the mouth of Gazi Bay - serves myriad functions: a nursery for young fish, the source of firewood for two local villages, a tourism attraction with a snaking boardwalk, a spiritual site, and a natural dike to protect the coast.

It is also is a raw, respiring ingredient to fight climate change.

CARBON SCRUBBERS

"Mangroves have a role to play when it comes to climate change," says Josphat Mwamba Mtwana, who is the Project Coordinator of Mikoko Pamoja, a community-led project that has been protecting and restoring Gazi Bay's mangrove forests since 2013.

Mikoko Pamoja protects 117 hectares of state-owned mangroves, representing almost 16% of mangroves in the bay. Each year, the project plants a further 4,000 mangrove trees in eroding areas. These two measures actively combat climate change.

How? Mangroves are natural carbon-scrubbers. As they respire, mangroves suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. They store CO2, which is one of the key greenhouse gases causing climate change, in their above-ground and below-ground components, and in the soil beneath their spider leg roots. Long-term storage of CO2 is a process called carbon sequestrationand as such, a mangrove forest acts as a 'carbon sink'.

CONTINUE READING HERE: https://equatorinitiative.exposure.co/the-blue-forest

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Meet Phan Mai Thanh Ngân (Ngân), UNDP Ocean Action Volunteer from Vietnam

19 Dec 2018 - Ngân joined the Ocean Action Campaign to #respect and help #SaveOurOcean in August 2018. Learn about her story and why she joined the campaign.

19 Dec 2018 - Ngân joined the United Nations Development Programme - UNDP Ocean Action Hub’s global campaign to #respect and help #SaveOurOcean in August 2018. Learn about her story and why she joined the campaign.

My full name is Phan Mai Thanh Ngân. You can call me Ngân for short. I am from #Vietnam. As a volunteer for the Ocean Action Hub of the United Nations Development Programme - UNDP, I am delighted to share with you my wonderful experience here.

The first time I saw the sea in person was when I was 7 years old. At that moment, though I was not old enough to have a profound knowledge of the important role of the sea in human life, I told myself that I would #protect that breathtaking view. I said that because I fell in love with the beauty of the sea on the first sight. That beauty greatly attracted a 7-year-old girl like me. 13 years passed, the passion of a little girl towards the sea did not fade away. Instead, such enthusiasm is growing. Now, I wish to conserve the #ocean not just only because of its exquisite beauty. The ocean, in fact, has many other values to appreciate besides its stunning beauty.

One of the actions that I have taken to protect the ocean is doing #volunteer work regarding ocean issues. I feel extremely lucky to come across the volunteering opportunity for the Ocean Action Hub. It is my honor to make a contribution to UNDP in general and Ocean Action Hub in particular by calling for commitment(s) in the official UN database so that we can far more easily achieve SDG14 targets and better the ocean health.

I find it absolutely worth doing.

Firstly, before working as a volunteer, I did not know much about areas of action we could do to protect the ocean and I also could not imagine the tremendous efforts that a lot of organizations around the world are making to save the ocean. Via this experience, I have gained deep insight into ocean issues. While I am in search of organizations working on ocean issues, I read a lot of materials that those organizations share on their website and social media channels, thus I can identify specific information about such organizations as well as widen my ocean-related knowledge. Secondly, thanks to this task, I get acquainted with friends who share the same concern towards the ocean with me. It does help extend my social network. Thirdly, it is the essence of this volunteer work that encourages me to devote myself to complete it.

I believe that the more commitment(s) organizations make in the official UN database, the brighter the future of our dear ocean is.

Ocean issues currently no longer occur on a small scale, within a country’s border. Instead, it is a worldwide issue that calls for the unity of Ocean Partners from different parts of the world to alleviate. Therefore, while carrying out the task as an intermediary to send emails to various organizations and invite them to join in the global effort to save the ocean, I feel my work really meaningful.

“ Small or big, every action counts!”

Perhaps, my contribution to the ocean health is not as tremendous as other people’s, I am still proud of myself as I know that I am trying my best to do what I can do for our dear ocean. No matter you work as an individual or as a big team, your contribution, whatever small or big, plays a significant role in the ocean conservation. So, let’s do it to respect and help #SaveOurOcean.

CONTINUE READING: https://www.facebook.com/notes/ocean-action-hub/meet-phan-mai-thanh-ng%C...

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What is the circular economy? Stepping up the fight against waste to #SaveOurOcean
17 Dec 2018 - The circular economy is a system in which re-using and recycling is maximised and waste and negative impacts are minimized — a closed loop where as little as possible is thrown away.

17 Dec 2018 - The best research available estimates there are over 150 million tonnes of plastics in the ocean today. Under a business-as-usual scenario, the ocean will contain more plastics than fish, by weight, by 2050.

Our waste problem is, put simply, enormous. And while initiatives such as forbidding plastic straws, encouraging alternatives to plastic coffee cups, and hosting ocean cleanups are very important contributions, they are not addressing the root of the issues, and are not moving the needle nearly enough. Recycling is not a panacea for our waste woes.

To get a grasp on the problem, we need new thinking and we need to scale-up. Now. But where lie the solutions? How are we to move the proverbial needle to where it needs to be?

First, we must more deeply realise that a thriving planet — with healthy ecosystems and biodiversity — are crucial to development and a sustainable future. From reducing poverty to achieving zero hunger to securing economic growth and sustainable cities, we need a healthy environment.

Second, we need to recognise the world’s capacity for economic growth is not unlimited. In fact, just as my two kids, six and eight years old will stop growing in 10 years, in the same way, a linear economy is probably limited in its growth as well. This is outlined by economist Kate Raworth (who has previously co-authored UNDP’s Human Development Report) in her book Doughnut Economics. Raworth argues that that we have reached our planetary boundaries and that unlimited growth might not be sustainable.

Third, we need to step-up action at-scale. It is through sound government policy and business leadership, that we will make a difference.

Indeed, the private sector — multinational corporations down to small- and medium-sized enterprises — are key partners.

What is the circular economy? In contrast to the linear, extractive model I mentioned earlier, the circular economy is “an industrial system that is restorative or regenerative by intention and design”. It describes a system in which re-using and recycling is maximised and waste and negative impacts are minimized — a closed loop system in which as little as possible is thrown away.

The concept is not new and has been gaining interest over the past years. However, we remain far from realizing our goals.

“We have an opportunity with the circular economy to rethink how we use resources like plastic and become a more responsible custodian of the planet. By using resources more efficiently and creating policies and economic infrastructure that encourage recycling and reuse, we can advance both Agenda 2030 and the Paris Agreement.” — Achim Steiner, Administrator of the UN Development Programme

CONTINUE READING ONLINE HERE: https://medium.com/undp-in-asia-and-the-pacific/stepping-up-the-fight-against-waste-and-embracing-the-circular-economy-32ae747a3a11

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Strengthening the first line of defence: Mangroves protect vulnerable communities in Bangladesh

14 Dec 2018 - UNDP, with Bangladesh’s Forest Department, has been working with communities on a unique programme expanding a flourishing greenbelt of mangroves.

14 Dec 2018 - In 1970, the world’s deadliest storm, known as the Great Bhola Cyclone, killed between 300,000 and 500,000 people in what is now Bangladesh.  In 1991, a violent cyclone accompanied by tidal surges up to 30 feet high took an estimated 138,000 lives.  In 2007, Cyclone Sidr claimed over 3,400 lives.

Last May, Cyclone Mora affected over 3 million people, killing at least six, damaging or destroying 52,000 homes, and leaving hundreds of thousands in need of shelter.

Of the world’s seven tropical cyclone basins, the Bay of Bengal is perhaps the most dangerous, its funnel shape and shallow waters fostering some of the most destructive storms in history.   

For those living along Bangladesh’s densely-populated, low-lying coastline, the risks are growing, as climate change drives rising sea levels, warmer oceans and increasingly ferocious cyclones.


"I live on a small island. When storms hit, they damage houses and land and pour saline water into the paddy fields and crops. Already I’ve shifted my home once due to river erosion and it is further in danger because the mighty river Meghna is only one kilometer away." Adition Chandra Das, Rahmanpur, South Sakuchia, Monpura, Bhola 

In a bid to increase natural protection for vulnerable residents, the UN Development Programme (UNDP), together with Bangladesh’s Forest Department, has been working with communities on a unique programme expanding a greenbelt of mangroves and promoting more-resilient, multi-species forests.

After two years, the programme, with support from the GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund, is making strong headway, embracing both participative design and community-based management in its implementation.

CONTINUE READING ONLINE HERE: https://undp-adaptation.exposure.co/strengthening-the-first-line-of-defence

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Rise out of challenge with a commitment for the future: Nyugah Innocent from Cameroon's story will melt your heart
13 Dec 2018 - ​I was almost giving up as it's a little difficult researching on phone but the thought of what my little effort would do to save marine life has kept me going.

13 Dec 2018 - One of our Ocean Action Volunteers from Cameroon, Nyugah Innocent Fomusoh, recently reached out to us with the following message. His message with his commitment to help #SaveOurOcean even amidst a very challenging situation inspired us with awe. We hope this will melt you heart as well.

The UNDP Ocean Action Hub has been working with over 200 dedicated volunteers covering over 100 countries/territories around the world on our Ocean Action Campaign aimed at respecting and helping #SaveOurOcean.

*** Innocent’s text message to us ***

Good day to you,

This is Nyugah Innocent Fomusoh, Ocean Action Campaign Volunteer from Cameroon. I apologize for the delay registered in completing Wave 1 and 2 of the campaign. I had research a few Organizations through online search but as a result of the ongoing crisis and prolonged electricity and network blackout in Kumbo in the North West Region of Cameroon, I was forced to flee unprepared and couldn't leave with my PC.

I was almost giving up as it's a little difficult researching on phone but the thought of what my little effort would do to save marine life has kept me going.

I have drafted a short note to send out to all my networks and contacts. Could you please review it and provide any suggestions on recommended changes.

Thanks a lot for all your guidance.

With gratitude

Nyugah Innocent

CONTINUE READING ONLINE HERE: https://www.facebook.com/notes/ocean-action-hub/rise-out-of-challenge-wi...

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Building Coastal Resilience through Innovation

10 Dec 2018 - How can new and scaled up investments in coastal areas build the resilience of countries and communities and increase their capacity to cope with climate change?

10 Dec 2018 - Insurance and infrastructure generally rank toward the very bottom of the list of fun and interesting things people like talking about. Beaches and coral reefs, on the other hand, are more engaging subjects. This one reason why climate risk insurance and insuring “natural infrastructure”—such as mangroves, coastal wetlands and coral reefs—has become quite a hot topic, including at the G7 Environment Ministers meeting this year.

Why the strong interest?

Coastal zones are absolutely critical to people’s lives and the planet. They are avenues to trade and communications; they provide resources and livelihoods; and they are often centers of economic growth, through industries like tourism, shipping, fishing and mineral extraction.

The ocean economy, covering broad categories of employment and ecosystem services, is estimated at US$3—6 trillion a year. And these areas are, of course, centers of population: half the world’s population lives within 60 kilometers of a coast.

But these critical zones are under intense threat.

Our changing climate is making sea levels rise and flooding more frequent. Storms are intensifying in severity, underground water sources are increasingly contaminated by salt water intrusion and coastal waters are increasing in temperature and acidity.

These increasing climate effects means we need to constantly renew our understanding of the risks we face in order to protect ourselves. The World Bank recently estimated the impact of extreme natural hazards to be equivalent to losing US$520 billion in annual consumption globally, forcing some 26 million people into poverty each year.

How can we cover the costs of these natural hazards and climate change impacts?

Government funding has not kept pace with the growing need to both reduce risks and build resilience to natural hazards such as tropical storms. Public budgets aren’t healthy enough to finance post-disaster cleanups, and most importantly, to fund the planning and implementation of preventative measures.

Fortunately, the World Bank report indicates that in the countries it studied, approaches such as insurance policies would help save US$100 billion a year and reduce the overall impact of natural hazards on well-being by around 20 percent.

New streams of finance: UNDP and The Nature Conservancy joint study

At the G7 Environment Ministers meeting in Halifax, Canada, in September, UNDP and The Nature Conservancy presented a joint study looking at how new and scaled up investments in coastal areas can build the resilience of countries and communities and increase their capacity to cope with climate change.

It examines some of the most innovative approaches to the mobilization of private capital for coastal resilience—particularly in Small Island Developing States. These approaches include:

  • insurance for natural capital: provides immediate funding for post-storm restoration of coral reefs and the services they provide; scalable from one pilot site in Cancun, Mexico, to multiple countries, providing insurance coverage that protects millions of people and billions of dollars in built infrastructure;
  • regional risk pools: reduces the costs governments have to pay to insure countries against storms by up to half; currently covers 18 of 37 small island states and could expand to cover additional sectors like fisheries and utilities;
  • green (or, more recently, “blue”) bonds: provides upfront capital for investment in coastal resilience, contingent on cash flows for repayment; huge potential for growth, contingent of clearer standards for what counts as “green” or “blue” investments;   
  • debt restructuring: provides cash flow for coastal resilience investments and could increase government budgets in indebted countries; scalable from a US$22 million innovation in Seychelles to potentially US$2 billion in restructurable debt across a dozen island states and well beyond that for coastal states.

Each of these mechanisms has the potential to be scaled up and make coastal areas around the world an attractive investment for certain private sector actors. But so far none have moved beyond pilot stage. This is the critical point: we urgently need to move beyond the science, beyond the pilots, to the roll out these credible ideas to threatened coastal communities.

But how do we most effectively scale up these projects to deliver them as widely as possible?

First, and fundamentally, we need the correct enabling environment for policy and financial structures. This means doing foundational work with local and national institutions to foster the conditions in which innovations can thrive and deliver.

Next, better data and metrics are needed to identify what programs work and why—we need to quantify how these program’s impact the environment and in turn peoples’ livelihoods.

And finally, we need all the right practitioners in the same room together. Governments, donors, the development sector and investors: all need to come together and share a vision for future resilience. Achieving the necessary, critical scaling of financial resources is above all else an issue of partnership.

CONTINUE READING: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/blog/2018/Building_Coastal_Resi...

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MOVING WITH THE TIMES: The Cook Islands is embracing technology for climate action

7 Dec 2018 - The Cook Islands Meteorological Service (Met Service) is modernising the capture, analysis, and distribution of climate information.

7 Dec 2018 - Fishers find typical seasons for the spawning of fish have changed and the islands are seeing coral bleaching and the disappearance of some native fish and shellfish delicacies.

"Fishing and planting are our communities’ livelihoods. In this, weather is everything. If the weather takes a turn for the worse while I am at sea, it can be a safety issue. If I am unable to catch enough fish to feed my family and provide for my community, then how can we survive? With the remoteness of our island, we must be resilient. We must adapt for our existence, and if technology is the pathway then let’s learn how to use it." - Poroa Arokapiki, Secretary - Mangaia Fishing Association

For centuries, Cook Islands communities have used traditional knowledge and skills, passed down through generations, to read their environment and provide food for their families. Nature has provided.

But farmers, fishers, and practitioners of traditional livelihoods have witnessed changes over the past decades. Typical seasons for the spawning of fish have shifted. Rainfall, wave, and wind patterns have become less predictable. The islands are seeing coral bleaching and the disappearance of some native fish and shellfish delicacies. Storm surges and sea-water intrusion are increasingly impacting crops.

While these trends are being observed first-hand by communities, scientific data is key to fully understanding the changes.

The Government of the Cook Islands is focused on filling the gaps and now, with the installation of automatic weather stations and a new online app, the Cook Islands Meteorological Service (Met Service) is modernising the capture, analysis, and distribution of climate information – a key piece of the puzzle in building a more climate-smart future.

CONTINUE READING ONLINE HERE: https://undp-adaptation.exposure.co/moving-with-the-times

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Innovative finance for the Maldives’ sustainable development

30 Nov 2018 - How can Maldives source the finance it needs to meet the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and what opportunities are offered by new innovative financing models?

30 Nov 2018 - The Maldives, which comprises 1,190 small islands in total, is a typical example of the ‘island paradox’ with multi-dimensional development challenges. On the one hand, the country has achieved relative prosperity; Gross National Income (GNI) increased by over 200% between 1990-2015, and human development indicators such as life expectancy at birth improved by 15.6 years. On the other hand, the country grapples with challenging macro-economic fundamentals: a high deficit (19.6% of GDP, 2016), high public debt levels (65.7% of GDP, 2016), a narrow economic and tax base, weak public financial management systems, vulnerability to external shocks due to a high dependence on fisheries and tourism sector (combined at over 30% of GDP), and increased environmental vulnerability due to climate change. The country’s graduation to middle-income status in 2011 has also resulted in a decline of development aid, of around 60% over a 10-year period since 2006.

In this context, how can Maldives source the finance it needs to meet the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? And what opportunities are offered by new innovative financing models?

UNDP’s work in the Maldives focuses on addressing democratic governance, gender and climate change challenges. The work also includes assisting the government in improving its access to finance through initiatives such as Tax Inspectors Without Borders which was recently launched in the country and helps tax administrations build their tax audit capacities. This, in turn, helps to mobilize domestic public resources. The recently elected new government's strong commitment to the SDGs will strengthen these efforts.  

What can be done? One, as a Muslim country, Islamic financing instruments (Shariah lawcompliant financial products) like ‘Green Sukuk,’ have significant potential in the Maldives. Earlier this year, Indonesia launched the first sovereign ‘Green Sukuk’, which was oversubscribed, and indicative of the growing market demand for sustainable and responsible investments. Zakat funds (a form of philanthropy where followers of Islam are encouraged to donate at least 2.5% of their accumulated wealth) are another pool of resources that could be strategically tapped into. In May 2018, the Maldives began accepting Zakat proceeds, to support health and livelihoods programmes, however, much remains to be done.

Two, the country could seek to leverage additional finance from the private sector through blended finance (combining public and private investment) and impact investment (investing to generate impact alongside a financial return) in the major sectors of sustainable tourism and fisheries, as well as agriculture and renewable energy. The Maldives could tap into assistance from initiatives such as the SIDS-DOCK sustainable energy initiative for example, that help small island developing states to connect with the global market for finance to transform their national energy sectors into a catalyst for sustainable economic development. Additionally, UNDP is developing several social impact bonds worldwide, that bear potential for replication.

Three, the ‘Blue Economy’ is gaining momentum. The concept refers to a development approach in which ocean resources are harnessed for economic growth while preserving ocean and coastal ecosystem health. It includes economic activities such as marine renewable energy, sustainable fisheries, better management of ocean waste and ocean-related eco-tourism. To finance blue economy investments, new finance models can be explored, such as blue bonds (tapping into capital markets to fund ocean-related environmental projects). Other innovative ‘blue’ financing instruments include blue insurance, to co-finance and discount premia if marine economy protection measures are taken.

There are examples to learn from. Grenada is the first country to develop a vision for ‘Blue Growth’ and to articulate a national ‘Masterplan’ for blue economic development. The Seychelles also champion the blue economy model: It recently announced the issuance of a 10-year blue bond to finance fisheries projects, making it the world’s first country to utilize capital markets for funding the sustainable use of marine resources. Best practices are shared through international events, such as the high-level global conference on Sustainable Blue Economy (26-28 November 2018 in Nairobi, Kenya) organized by the Governments of Canada, Japan and Kenya.

Additionally, the government needs to create an environment that better facilitates sustainable investment such as, strengthening institutions, improving transparency and good governance, improving the ease-of-doing-business, and building a strong policy framework for managing coastal and ocean resources, amongst others.

UNDP as a trusted development partner is assisting the Maldives on a wide portfolio of activities across climate change and governance, through technical expertise, policy advice, advocacy, knowledge sharing, and dialogue. However, it is crucial for the country to explore new innovative financing mechanisms to be able to achieve its development aspirations. As a small island developing state, the country needs to be supported to build capacities in these new financing models and approaches, to enable them to pull in new resources and build new partnerships for sustainable development.

CONTINUE READING: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/blog/2018/innovative-finance-for-Maldives-sustainable-development.html

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Global project launched to protect marine biodiversity

29 Nov 2018 - GloFouling Partnerships: A new collaboration between the GEF, UNDP and IMO to address bioinvasions through ships’ hulls and other marine structures

GloFouling Partnerships: A new collaboration between the GEF, UNDP and IMO to address bioinvasions through ships’ hulls and other marine structures

29 Nov 2018 - A new international effort to combat the negative environmental impacts of the transfer of aquatic species through ships has been launched this week. The GloFouling Partnerships project - a collaboration between the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) - will address the build-up of aquatic organisms on a ship’s underwater hull and on other marine mobile infrastructure.

The introduction of invasive aquatic organisms into new marine environments not only affects biodiversity and ecosystem health, but also has measurable impacts on a number of economic sectors such as fisheries, aquaculture and ocean energy. Therefore, addressing invasive aquatic species is not only a matter of ensuring the health and integrity of marine ecosystems, but ultimately about safeguarding ecosystem services that sustain the livelihoods of coastal communities across the globe.

The GloFouling project will drive actions to implement the IMO Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling, which provide a globally-consistent approach on how biofouling should be controlled and managed to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species through ships’ hulls. The project will also spur the development of best practices and standards for improved biofouling management in other ocean industries.

Twelve countries, representing a mix of developing nations and Small Island Developing States, have been selected to spearhead the work of the GloFouling project: Brazil, Ecuador, Fiji, Indonesia, Jordan, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Tonga.

The GEF is providing a US$6.9 million grant to deliver a range of governance reforms at the national level, through numerous capacity-building activities, training workshops and opportunities for technology adoption to help address the issue of invasive species. Strong participation from private sector stakeholders is also expected, replicating the successful public-private sector partnership model used by IMO in previous projects.

While IMO will focus on shipping, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) will join the three main partners (GEF, UNDP, IMO) to lead the approach to other marine sectors with a view to developing best practices that may address the transfer of invasive aquatic species through improved biofouling management.  IOC-UNESCO will work hand in hand with the GloFouling project to increase awareness of this environmental challenge among key stakeholders. 

CONTINUE READING ONLINE HERE: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/news-centre/news/2018/global-project-launched-to-protect-marine-biodiversity-.html